The exterior of Highland View Elementary in Bristol, a school declared "functionally obsolete" in 2011 but still in use. Courtesy of Bristol Public Schools.

The school infrastructure crisis in Virginia is well-documented and longstanding. The most recent data provided by VDOE shows that the total cost to replace schools that are at least 50 years old, would carry a price tag of over $25,000,000,000. Unfortunately, school divisions that serve high poverty communities are disproportionally represented in this data set. Furthermore, high poverty communities often have fewer local resources to address the issue as it is difficult, if not impossible, to increase local taxes on families who struggle to pay rent and receive free or reduced priced lunches. Funding streams and policy options exist in Virginia to begin addressing these issues. Resources are not the issue, it’s political will that’s in question.

A new study put out by the National Council on School Facilities and the 21 st Century School Fund shows that the issue of crumbling schools is a nationwide problem. Unfortunately, the same report declares that Virginia is one of the worst states in the Nation regarding state contribution to school infrastructure. The national average for state contribution for school capital expense and debt service in FY2009-2019 is 22%. Virginia does not come close to this average contribution while other states contribute over 50% of the expense.

Furthermore, the report identifies that Virginia’s public-school districts are underfunded by
$527,000,000 every year for maintenance and operations. This annual deficit will only add to the current $25,000,000,000 price tag in Virginia if federal, state, and local governments don’t develop immediate solutions, especially for students and schools in high poverty communities.

This is not just an issue of infrastructure; it is an issue of equity. Virginia has put many safeguards in place to ensure that students in different subgroups have equitable access to meals, special curriculums, Governor’s Schools, and even in SOL performance and growth. For
example, by increasing the contribution to the At-Risk Add On, the Commonwealth has made modest strides in ensuring that high poverty students have more educational resources. Unfortunately, the only safeguard that students have in regard to building quality, safety, health, and accessibility is the VDOE’s Guidelines for School Facilities. These guidelines “recommend” certain standards be met when old schools are renovated, or new schools are built. Just like Virginia’s Constitution only requires that the General Assembly “seek to” fund an adequate education, these facility guidelines fall short of guaranteeing all students have adequate schools and classrooms. Furthermore, a locality must have the capacity to build or renovate to even consider the “recommendations” in these guidelines.

A common sight in some Virginia schools, particularly in rural areas and small cities: Trash cans set out to collect rainwater dripping through the roof. These are at Virginia High School in Bristol. Courtesy of Bristol Public Schools.

School divisions in Virginia have an interesting dilemma in how to respond to school infrastructure issues. School Boards are responsible for cleaning, maintaining, renovating, and replacing school buildings. However, School Boards have no control over the amount of money they receive. Additionally, most of the funding School Boards are given are restricted through State and Federal mandates.

One tool that is available to school divisions in Virginia to address school infrastructure concerns is the Literary Fund. The Literary Fund is defined in Article VIII, Section 8 of Virginia’s Constitution as a permanent and perpetual fund that can be used to provide low interest loans to school divisions with Local Composite Index as a condition of award. Any amount in the Fund above $80 million may be used for other purposes including the teacher retirement fund. In the last 5 years, only six school divisions have accessed this option of low interest loans, while $790 million has been appropriated to the teacher retirement fund during that same period. The Literary Fund should be prioritized for school infrastructure, specifically school construction grants.

Only 9 loans for school construction in 6 years

Loan dateLocalityPurposeAmount authorized
2015Manassas ParkCougar Upper Elementary$7.500,000
2016CovingtonJeter-Watson Intermediate$5,822,500
2016CovingtonEdgemont Primary$5,822,500
2016Prince George CountyNorth Elementary$7,500,000
2016Pulaski CountyRiverlawn Elementary$4,987,172
2018Wythe CountyRural Retreat High School$7,500,000
2018Wythe CountyRural Retreat Middle School$2,518,951
2018Giles CountyGiles County Technology Center$6,765,603
2019Giles CountyEastern Elementary/Middle$7,500,000
This is a list of school divisions which have received Literary Fund loans in the last six years.

With a recent proposal put forth by Senators Kaine and Warner, the federal government is on the cusp of taking on a portion of school infrastructure expense. Additional federal dollars could be available if school infrastructure funds survive the Reconciliation chopping block. Combined with the restricted ability to use recent federal aid funds (ESSER/ARPA) for some school infrastructure projects, the federal government is at least acknowledging that the solution to the nationwide school infrastructure problem will take collaboration from all levels of government.

State government, and especially local government, are not exempt from this responsibility. Localities are typically doing the best they can by meeting match requirements, approving bond issuances, or using creative ideas for generating revenue in localities like Halifax, Charlotte, Gloucester, Henry, Northampton, and Patrick Counties. Regrettably, the Commonwealth is currently making no meaningful contribution to address this well-documented and longstanding issue.

Despite having the capacity to provide assistance to localities to improve school infrastructure issues, Virginia has not shown the will to help in this area in well over a decade. Virginia is rated as the best state in the country to do business, is among the top 10 wealthiest states, and had a surplus of over $2 billion last fiscal year. At the same time, the Commonwealth is dead last in the amount we pay teachers, relative to workers with similar educational backgrounds, and not much better in how much we invest in public school infrastructure. Virginia doesn’t have an issue of ability, we have an issue of priority.

More money has gone for teacher retirement than construction

Teacher retirementDebt service payments

In the upcoming General Assembly, Virginia has an opportunity to take on a small share of the burden of our current crisis. First, Virginia should phase in minimum standards that ensure students attend school in buildings that are handicap accessible, safe, healthy, and conducive to a 21st Century learning environment. Guidelines, recommendations, and a “seek to” mentality will only exacerbate the current inequities in Virginia schools. Next, Virginia should restructure Literary Fund distributions in a way that encourages its use to improve school infrastructure and supports more of Virginia’s schools and students. Additionally, Virginia should continue to expand options for creative approaches to support locality’s attempts to generate revenue. Finally, Virginia should use a portion of the recent surplus, along with federal pandemic aid and other emerging funding streams from marijuana, casinos, and digital download tax revenue, to reestablish state support for school capital outlay on an annual basis.

It is clear that the school infrastructure problem will only be solved through federal, local, and state collaboration. Public schools are part of the foundation of our communities, our Commonwealth, and our nation. Hopefully, the Virginia General Assembly demonstrates, during the upcoming Session, the will to apply our significant resources to solve this problem, because Virginia cannot afford to allow this important foundation to crumble.

Keith Perrigan is superintendent of Bristol Public Schools. He is also president of the Coalition of Small and Rural Schools of Virginia and am a member of the Virginia Commission on School Construction and Modernization.

Keith Perrigan is superintendent of schools in Washington County, president of the Coalition of Small...